The municipality of Villanueva is located in the southern region of the Department of La Guajira within the valley of the Cesar River, between the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta mountains and the Serranía del Perijá which Villanueva borders. Villanueva is known in Colombia for being the cradle of many vallenato singers and composers. The economy of the town relies heavily on agriculture and farming.
Villanueva celebrates in the month of September the Cradle of Accordions Festival, a vallenato musical contest as well as a religious celebration in honor of Saint Thomas. The festival was declared "Cultural and Artistic Heritage of the Nation" by the Congress of the Republic, to ensure the preservation, conservation, promotion and dissemination of vallenato music.
In the Indian Museum you can see several pre-Columbian pieces of Iroto, Cayaimaso and Cara Chile cultures.
Villanueva has abundant natural sites, with spas with cold and crystalline waters such as the hidden castle, La Ceiba, the house of culture, archaeological museum, well of the three walls, the well of the snake, Cerro Pintao, etc.